Undo Last Git Commit with reset

The easiest way to undo the last Git commit is to execute the “git reset” command with the “–soft” option that will preserve changes done to your files. You have to specify the commit to undo which is “HEAD~1” in this case.

The last commit will be removed from your Git history.

git reset --soft HEAD~1

In order to undo the last commit and discard all changes in the working directory and index, execute the “git reset” command with the “–hard” option and specify the commit before HEAD (“HEAD~1”).

git reset --hard HEAD~1

MySQL shutdown unexpectedly on XAMPP – Server socket created on IP: ‘::’

  1. Take backup all files+folder from folder mysql/data to mysql/data_old_backup
  2. Sometime XAMPP MySQL service stopped working, in my case reason in XAMPP control panel: “Error: MySQL shutdown unexpectedly” with the same error log


  1. I have fixed the same issue, copy (+overwrite) all files+folder from xampp/mysql/backup/ into xampp/mysql/data/
  2. You may lost your Mysql root password after step-1, your mysql password is null now.
  3. Now, Copy (+overwrite) file ibdata1 from backup folder from “mysql/data_old_backup/ibdata1” to xampp/mysql/data/
    (because you want to restore all your data)
  4. Start MySQL from XAMPP control panel.

Install extensions on PHP 8.0

To install PHP 8 extensions on Debian use the following command syntax:

sudo apt install php8.0-<extension>


  • <extension> is replaced with the actual extension name.

Some available extensions are as shown below:

$ sudo apt install php8.0-
php8.0-bcmath            php8.0-curl-dbgsym       php8.0-gmp-dbgsym        php8.0-mysql             php8.0-pspell-dbgsym     php8.0-tidy
php8.0-bcmath-dbgsym     php8.0-dba               php8.0-imap              php8.0-mysql-dbgsym      php8.0-readline          php8.0-tidy-dbgsym
php8.0-bz2               php8.0-dba-dbgsym        php8.0-imap-dbgsym       php8.0-odbc              php8.0-readline-dbgsym   php8.0-xdebug
php8.0-bz2-dbgsym        php8.0-dev               php8.0-interbase         php8.0-odbc-dbgsym       php8.0-snmp              php8.0-xml
php8.0-cgi               php8.0-enchant           php8.0-interbase-dbgsym  php8.0-opcache           php8.0-snmp-dbgsym       php8.0-xml-dbgsym
php8.0-cgi-dbgsym        php8.0-enchant-dbgsym    php8.0-intl              php8.0-opcache-dbgsym    php8.0-soap              php8.0-xsl
php8.0-cli               php8.0-fpm               php8.0-intl-dbgsym       php8.0-pgsql             php8.0-soap-dbgsym       php8.0-zip
php8.0-cli-dbgsym        php8.0-fpm-dbgsym        php8.0-ldap              php8.0-pgsql-dbgsym      php8.0-sqlite3           php8.0-zip-dbgsym
php8.0-common            php8.0-gd                php8.0-ldap-dbgsym       php8.0-phpdbg            php8.0-sqlite3-dbgsym
php8.0-common-dbgsym     php8.0-gd-dbgsym         php8.0-mbstring          php8.0-phpdbg-dbgsym     php8.0-sybase
php8.0-curl              php8.0-gmp               php8.0-mbstring-dbgsym   php8.0-pspell            php8.0-sybase-dbgsym


sudo apt install php8.0-{mysql,cli,common,imap,ldap,xml,fpm,curl,mbstring,zip}

To check loaded PHP modules use the command:

$ php -m

How to load SSH Keys to SourceTree

A lot of articles will mention loading the SSK key through the SourceTree app… don’t do this.

SourceTree will look in Pageant Key List. To load it here type “Pageant” in Windows search. Open the program. Find the ppk key to load (will need to be version 2). Then you’ll be able to push to GitHub and Bitbucket.

Couldn’t load private key format too new

This issue happens when you use PuTTYgen to generate or convert to a ppk key.

When you use PuTTYgen to generate or convert to a ppk key and leave PuTTYgen settings as default, you might experience this issue.

From PuTTY version 0.75, the program uses a new format to generate the SSH private key; it uses ppk version 3. However, PuTTY 0.74 or earlier versions can’t read this format, and this can be a problem for programs that use PuTTY internally, like Solar PuTTY or MobaXtermn. If the internal PuTTY version is not compatible with PPK version 3, the program can’t use keys created with a default setting of PuTTY 0.75.


You can generate a new SSH key pair or change the private key format of an existing private key using PuTTYgen .

Step 1: Change the PuTTYgen PPK File Version to version 2.

Run the PuTTYgen program. Go to Key > Parameters for saving key files…

Changing the Version of the SSH Private Key

Change the PuTTygen PPK File Version to version 2.

Changing the Version of the SSH Private Key

Step 2: Generate a new SSH key pair or change the format of an existing one.

After following step one, you can now generate a key using the ppk version 2. You will be able to SSH to the cloud instance. This option is better if you are just creating the cloud instance. 

Step 3: Click on Load and search for your ppk key (version 3). Click Save private key, to convert the key to the old ppk format.

Changing the Version of the SSH Private Key

Move repository from Bitbucket to GitHub with all branches and commits

Step 1 : Create a Blank repository on Github without Readme.md

Step 2 : Moving all code and content from bitbucket

1. Check out the existing repository from Bitbucket:

$ git clone git@bitbucket.org:Cotocuschandan/testrepo.git

2. Now adding new GitHub Repository as upstream remote of the repository which is clone from bitbucket.

$ cd testrepo
$ git remote add upstream git@github.com:devops-school-com/ds-test.git

3. push all branches and tags to GitHub Repository using below commands

$ git push upstream master
$ git push --tags upstream

Step 3 : Add URL of New Github Repository as redirect URL

$ git remote set-url origin git@github.com:devops-school-com/ds-test.git

Step 4: At last Clone all branches and tags to GitHub Repository

$ git push --mirror

Edit old commit message

Filter Branch Command Line Method

Add this piece of code to Git Bash for project but update the commit ID and the commit message:

git filter-branch --msg-filter "test $(echo '$GIT_COMMIT') = $(git rev-parse 05163c9b8ba425369c9b1619d43ed17b16604ec3) && echo 'Adding theme files' || cat" -- --all

Force push the commit to Github.com with this:

git push origin master --force

Filter Branch Bash Method

Issue: Can’t read PATH

Add this to file named git-reword-commit inside C:\bin

#! /bin/bash
path_to_git='/c/Program Files/Git/mingw64/bin/'
echo $PATH
export PATH
FILTER="test $(echo '$GIT_COMMIT') = $(git rev-parse $REV) && echo $MESSAGE || cat"
git filter-branch --msg-filter "$FILTER" -- --all

Open cmd and go to directory C:\bin then type

bash git-reword-commit

PATH is supposed to make the git command work but get these errors:

': not a valid identifier: export: `PATH
git-reword-commit: line 7: git: command not found
git-reword-commit: line 8: git: command not found

Rebase Method

Issue: Only changes on one branch… if the change happened on Master you’ll only see on Master and not Develop. It also separates the two branches and they no longer intertwine.

Figure out how many commits to go back. If you get an error message you went back too far:

git rebase -i HEAD~133

If you didn’t go far back enough then undo it

git rebase --abort

When you see your commit, use the up and down keys to get to the line. Press “i” to enable editing of text. Change “pick” to “reword” and press “Esc” then type “:wq” which will save the file.

pick e499d89 Corrected syntax error 
pick 0c39034 Adding code prism.js
pick f7fde4a More css updates

# Rebase 9fdb3bd..f7fde4a onto 9fdb3bd
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
# Note that empty commits are commented out

After I saved and closed, it then opened up the commit I renamed and I saved that with “:wq” as well.

Finish the rebase with:

git rebase --continue

Force push the commit to Github.com with this:

git push origin master --force

Set Up Docker Python

Install Python and Docker

Create folder on computer named docker-python and follow steps below:

cd /path/to/python-docker 
pip3 install Flask 
pip3 freeze | grep Flask >> requirements.txt 

Create app.py file and add this code

from flask import Flask
app = Flask(__name__)

def hello_world():
    return 'Hello, Docker!'

Create a Dockerfile for Python

# syntax=docker/dockerfile:1

FROM python:3.8-slim-buster


COPY requirements.txt requirements.txt
RUN pip3 install -r requirements.txt

COPY . .

CMD [ "python3", "-m" , "flask", "run", "--host="]

Directory structure is now:

|____ app.py
|____ requirements.txt
|____ Dockerfile

Build an image:

docker build --tag docker-python .

Run your image as a container with ability to open in browser

docker run --publish 5000:5000 docker-python

Test in terminal to see if works

curl localhost:5000
Hello, Docker!

Check Docker Desktop and you should see it listed as a running container with ability to open in browser!